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Office Space Timeline: Past, Present, and Future [INFOGRAPHIC]

Grace Chen
Grace Chen|Updated October 4th 2019

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What was work like when your grandparents were young? What about your parents? How have offices changed since then? Will we all become digital nomads by 2030? Will robots take over the world by 2100?

From the beginning of agriculture to the Industrial Revolution and development of the office, the way we work has, is, and will continue to change over time. But how has the way we work changed over time? What does the office of the future look like? What steps do we need to take today to get us where we want to be tomorrow? What role will technology play?

We studied the history of the office and spoken with expert futurists to create a timeline of office space and culture–from the smoke-filled rooms of the 1950s to the dynamic green-spaces of the 22nd century.

Here’s a look back at offices through the decades and a look forward to the offices of the future.

find-new-office-now

Offices Through the Decades

1950s, 1960s, 1970s, 1980s, 1990s, 2000s, 2010s

Offices of the Future

2030s, 2100s

Check out the full infographic here.

Offices Through the Decades

Offices in the 1950s

office space 1950s infographic

In the 1950s, offices more resembled smokey factory floors than the bright, green spaces of the modern day. In a way reminiscent of the industrial age and the World Wars, the office of the 1950s was a formal and hierarchical space.

Office Culture in the 1950s

Companies in the 1950s were rigidly structured, where high-ranking employees worked alone in private offices and the rest of the employees sat on an open floor. It was common to smoke and drink at work, and with the majority of employees in the same open space, non-smokers were forced to breathe second-hand smoke all day.

Office Design in the 1950s

Open plan offices were, in fact, popular long before the open offices of the modern day. Open offices in the 1950s, however, were not designed to encourage communication and collaboration, rather to be reminiscent of factory floors–having all workers visible was meant to ensure maximum productivity. Meanwhile, high-ranking employees often had their own offices and the most senior members of companies had corner offices with more windows, which served as a further status symbol.

Office Attire in the 1950s

In the 1950s, office attire was strictly business formal and expected during all working hours, every day of the week. Colours were modest and conservative and overarching conformity was expected.

Working hours per week in the 1950s

In comparison to the long “dawn to dusk” hours worked in the 19th century and the fluctuating hours in the first half of the 20th century–hours which were largely affected by the two World Wars–working hours stabilised around 40 hours per week by the middle of the 20th century. In the 1950s, the working population clocked in an average 43 hours per week [1].

Women in the workforce in the 1950s

In the 1950s, the gender divide was prominent–men dominated essentially all aspects of society. Men held high-ranking positions in the workplace while women most often worked as secretaries or shorthand-typists before they were married, after which they left the workforce to be full-time homemakers. Women holding executive positions were essentially unheard of.

  • On average, women earned 63% of what men were paid [2]
  • The ratio of women to men in the workforce was 30:70 respectively [3]

Offices in the 1960s

office space 1950s infographic

The show Mad Men was widely praised for its accurate depiction of office culture, decor, and attire in the 1960s–the workplace of the 1960s was a boozy, smoke-filled affair that often carried on in the form of socials long after office hours.

Office Culture in the 1960s

The offices of the 1960s, as Mad Men portrays, were martini-filled days that turned into indulgent nights, the morning after which nevertheless saw employees back at their desks. The birth control pill, which was approved for contraceptive use in 1960, gave women a larger measure of independence and freedom to intermingle with their male colleagues.

Office Design in the 1960s

In the 1960s, Robert Propst, an employee of Herman Miller furniture company, felt that the assembly line-like office of the 1950s was too entrenched in hierarchy and status. Propst responded by creating the Action office, a three-walled space designed to be open while still allowing each individual employee privacy. This new office plan became popular and became widely-known as the cubicle [4].

Office Attire in the 1960s

Office attire in the 1960s carried on in the style of the 1950s, where business formal was the norm in the workplace. However, as seen in the rise of the cubicle, work culture was evolving to allow more individualism and as such, office attire slowly became more colourful.

Working hours per week in the 1960s

Working hours–which started to stabilise around 40 hours per week in the 1950s–dropped slightly throughout the 1960s, a trend that would continue until present day. On average, workers in the 1960s were at their jobs 41 hours every week [1].

Women in the workforce in the 1960s

In 1960, the birth control pill was approved for contraceptive use, gaining 6.5 million users by 1965 [5]. Women, having gained control over their bodies, experienced a newfound liberation from traditional gender roles. This partly contributed to the lively office culture of the day, as well as the continued victories in women’s rights in the years to come. Furthermore, in 1963, the Equal Pay Act in the United States was signed into law by John F. Kennedy and aimed to eliminate discrimination and unequal pay based on gender [6].

  • On average, women earned 60% of what men were paid [2]
  • The ratio of women to men in the workforce was 33:67 respectively [3]

Offices in the 1970s

office space 1950s infographic

By the 1970s, the hippie movement had dominated Western society for a decade and had created values and fashion trends that would majorly affect global culture. It could be argued that because the hippies outright challenged the status quo, they spurred the progression of gender, social, and racial equality in society and the workplace.

Office Culture in the 1970s

Office culture in the 1970s was, in a way, more relaxed than the culture of today–long lunches, water cooler talk, and multiple cigarette breaks were less frowned upon. As with previous decades, men still dominated the workplace, although various equality laws along with the hippie movement helped advance equality in the workplace.

Office Design in the 1970s

The cubicle, which was conceptualised and popularised in the 1960s, was by far the most dominant type of office in the 1970s. Ergonomic designs dominated the decade–office designs continued to provide individual workers with greater measures of freedom to work autonomously and creatively. Computers began to find their way into the office, in those times as giant whirring machines that took up entire rooms.

Office Attire in the 1970s

The 1970s were well-known for hippie and disco culture, which placed heavy emphasis on individualism in an almost rebellious act against the conformity that dominated preceding decades. Such attire modestly found its way into the workplace and inspired further colour and pattern in the work uniform. Workplaces started to allow more variety than strictly business formal.

Working hours per week in the 1970s

Working hours continued to drop marginally but steadily per decade, to 40 hours per week in the 1970s [1]. That being said, casual breaks during the day such as the aforementioned extended lunches, water cooler talk, and cigarette breaks were more common in the 1970s than they are today.

Women in the workforce in the 1970s

Following the 1963 Equal Pay Act in the United States, the 1970 Equal Pay Act was passed by the United Kingdom Parliament prohibiting unequal treatment between working men and women in terms of pay and employment conditions [7]. In 1970, 50,000 women marched down Fifth Avenue in New York City in what was known as the Women’s Strike for Equality to mark the 50th anniversary of the 19th Amendment, which gave American women the right to vote [8].

Even though women started to gain a measure of equality through such efforts, the 1970s were still a time when women worked the more menial of office jobs and often left the workforce to become full time homemakers once they were married. The phrase “sexual harassment in the workplace” was not spoken until well into the 1980s, and while such misconduct still exists in the workplace today, prior to the 1980s, women were left to fend off unwanted advances on their own.

  • On average, women earned 59% of what men were paid [2]
  • The ratio of women to men in the workforce was 38:62 respectively [3]#

Offices in the 1980s

office space 1980s infographic

In the 1980s, the PC started to gain popularity in the workplace, marking the start of a technological era that would change the workplace forever. Generation X started to enter the workforce, bringing with them new ideas that contributed to the progressive dismantling of strict hierarchies in the workplace.

Office Culture in the 1980s

Generation X came of working age in the 1980s. This, along with the influence of hippie culture that had dominated the 1960s and 1970s, inspired a new dynamic in the workplace where power and decision was not centralised in the upper echelons of companies. Middle management gained authority, creating a culture where employers and employees alike took ownership in moving the company forward.

Office Design in the 1980s

The 1980s were a decade where corporate culture was dominant. Office design subsequently took on a modern aesthetic with clean lines made of glass and concrete [9]. The PC was brought to mass market in the 1980s, radically changing workplace design and operation. The heavy PC of the 1980s brought about equally heavy workstations.

Office Attire in the 1980s

Business formal attire remained relatively unchanged in the 1980s, however, more colours were accepted in the workplace. In certain companies, business casual started becoming commonplace. Women had more choice in the type of clothing that was considered appropriate for the workplace.

Working hours per week in the 1980s

Average working hours per week increased slightly in the 1980s to 43 hours per week [1], This was largely due to corporate culture, which encouraged a habit of working long hours as a sign of dedication to the company.

Women in the workforce in the 1980s

Even though equality had been a hotly debated topic for decades, the term “sexual harassment” was not coined until 1975 by a group of women at Cornell University [10]. In the 1980s, the phrase “sexual harassment in the workplace” was spoken for the first time. While sexual harassment in the workplace would still not be abolished even by present day, the 1980s marked a turning point where women started to gain the right to vocalise their concerns without distinct fear of losing their jobs.

  • On average, women earned 64% of what men were paid [2]
  • The ratio of women to men in the workforce was 43:57 respectively [3]

Offices in the 1990s

office space 1950s infographic

The 1990s saw a huge leap in technological advancement in the workplace, more specifically, a worldwide “network of networks,” otherwise known as the World Wide Web, was made publicly available in August of 1991, fundamentally changing the way the world operated [11].

Office Culture in the 1990s

In the 1990s, the economy was booming. Woman as well as people from different ethnicities and classes enjoyed a larger measure of equality than ever before in history, creating a richer and more diverse office culture. The World Wide Web gained traction, creating new ways of communication in business and the workplace.

Office Design in the 1990s

The office of the 1990s was a contrast to the perceived excess of the office of the 1980s. Office design in the 1990s was utilitarian and functional. Open offices started becoming popular again, but for different reasons than they were in earlier decades–in the 1990s, offices were made open plan to promote collaboration [9].

Office Attire in the 1990s

By the 1990s, office attire had become more casual. Casual Fridays were introduced and gained popularity during the decade. For a number of industries, men could get away with never having to wear a tie and women had the freedom to choose from a wide variety of clothing styles.

Working hours per week in the 1990s

Working hours continued to drop slightly by the 1990s, remaining stable at around 40 hours per week as it had starting in the 1950s [1].

Women in the workforce in the 1990s

Women in the 1990s enjoyed various benefits and opportunities won by previous waves of feminism and were brought up with expectations of achievement similar to that of men. Despite persisting barriers of sexism, classism, and racism, there were more women in the workplace making a closer salary to that of men than ever before.

  • On average, women earned 72% of what men were paid [2]
  • The ratio of women to men in the workforce was 43:57 respectively [3]

Offices in the 2000s

office space 2000s infographic

The turn of the millennium saw millennials enter the workforce. The 2000s were a time of evolution and revolution in the way people worked. Technology and high-speed connectivity became hyper prevalent in society. The smartphone was brought to mass market in the latter part of the 2000s, redefining the way people interacted with each other.

Office Culture in the 2000s

While Generation X sought to dismantle the strict hierarchies of the workplace in the decades that preceded them, millennials sought to redefine what a successful career meant, and how such a career could be achieved. The dot com explosion and success of tech companies such as Microsoft and Google paved the way for the young, entrepreneurial, and driven to create their own tech companies in hopes of similar success. Office culture became one of innovation and hustle, where teams worked together to achieve high growth.

Office Design in the 2000s

The term “coworking” was coined in San Francisco in the 2000s, concurrent with the growth of remote professionals and independent contractors. Coworking spaces–where people not employed by the same company work in the same space–started to become popular, giving those seeking an alternative to coffee shops and isolation in home offices a place to interact with like-minded individuals.

Office Attire in the 2000s

Business casual dress continued to gain popularity in the 2000s. Tech startups introduced casual wear in the office, believing that how people perform takes precedence over what they wear.

Working hours per week in the 2000s

Working hours for full-time employees in the 2000s sat at approximately 38 hours per week [1]. That being said, employees of various industries, keen to get ahead and achieve the millennial dream of early retirement and world travel, often worked longer hours and weekends in order to achieve their goals.

Women in the workforce in the 2000s

Women continued to gain equality in the workforce in the 2000s, with more opportunities and higher salaries than ever before. The gender wage gap continues to close, although women still only earned on average 76% of what men are paid.

  • On average, women earned 76% of what men were paid [2]
  • The ratio of women to men in the workforce was 45:55 respectively [3]

Offices in the 2010s

office space 2010s infographic

By the 2010s, millennials have taken over the workforce, filling numerous executive positions at multinational companies worldwide. The millennial attitude is prevalent in the workplace, especially in the booming startup industry. According to the Gallup 2017 State of the American Workplace survey, 51% percent said that they would change jobs if they were allowed flexible schedules, and 35% said that they would change jobs if they could work from home.

Valuing experiences over physical possessions and keen on disrupting traditional methods of work, millennials in the 2010s are redefining the workplace–this will drastically affect the office of the future.

Office Culture in the 2010s

Office culture in the 2010s is one of collaboration, community, and equality. Tech startup culture is prevalent [12], where employees are friends first, colleagues second, and all driven to work for the common goal of growth. Essentially all developed countries have passed laws regarding class, race, and gender equality in the workplace, aspects that much of the millennial workforce are conscious of irrespective of laws.

Office Design in the 2010s

The rise of coworking in the 2010s was meteoric, with major players such as WeWork dominating the industry and providing spaces for people from different companies and industries to work, collaborate, and network. Meanwhile, various large corporations pushed the boundaries of office design, such as with Apple Park–Apple’s extravagant, glass-lined ‘spaceship’ campus in Cupertino [13], or Bloomberg’s European HQ–rated the world’s most sustainable office building [14]. Sustainability, wellness, and community are among the most highly valued aspects of offices in the 2010s.

Office Attire in the 2010s

The 2010s have allowed a wide range of attire to be worn in the office, with style and design specific to each industry. Startup culture created a trend of casual wear in the office. Those who work in ad agencies and industries such as fashion generally dress in the latest trends, while those in more conservative industries still observe the traditional business formal wear.

Working hours per week in the 2010s

According to a survey conducted by Edelman Research, the total workforce grew 2.5%, whereas the freelance workforce grew 8.1% between 2014 to 2018 [15]. The ever-growing amount of freelancers make estimating the average amount of hours worked difficult, however, for full-time employees, the average sits at 37.5 hours per week [1].

Women in the workforce in the 2010s

Gender equality has come a long way since the 1950s, but there is still work to be done. The viral #MeToo movement of 2017, which gained international attention and response from high-profile celebrities, further empowered women to speak up against sexual misconduct.

  • On average, women earned 77% of what men were paid [2]
  • The ratio of women to men in the workforce was 46:54 respectively [3]

The Office of the Future

Moving beyond the 2010s, there is an endless world–or even universe–of opportunity for technological advancement and cultural development in the workplace. This report on how the office of the future will look and feel is produced based on data on current trends in the workplace, and the expert views of futurists Yesim Kunter and Liselotte Lyngsø.

Lyngsø says that to predict the future, trends should be considered along with the human aspects that are missing or disappearing from present society. “The upcoming generations want to be a part of a meaningful journey,” she adds. “They will either want to find ways to make large sums of money in a short period of time so they can be free to enjoy other aspects of life, or they will want to be a part of a movement that creates a better world.”

As of the present, only 1 in 7 people feel that they have a meaningful job and often want to live the type of life others appear to have on social media. The Future of Work will have to have meaning, as will the office of the future.

Offices in the 2030s

office space 2030s infographic

In the 2030s, the workplace will be a green, sustainable, and creative space that is focused on community. Technology will be prevalent. Technological growth will impact the workforce by rendering certain positions obsolete while creating new jobs, services, and efficiencies.

Liselotte Lyngsø predicts that access economies will slowly replace economies of scale. There will be fewer hierarchical companies governed by a few individuals at the top. Companies will instead be decentralised and have smaller teams that gather to work on project-basis. Headhunting will become “team hunting”, because a strong and productive team is more valuable than an individual expert.

Office Culture in the 2030s

The office of the 2030s will be a progression of the coworking and coliving movements that started in the 2000s and 2010s respectively. Continued technological developments will create a world where more people work from home and digital nomads are prevalent. However, people still need time and space to meet in real life. As a result, the community aspect will become more important.

Office Design in the 2030s

Technology

In the future, there will be little or no need for a computer or laptop. Instead, people will use projections from small devices such as wearable tech, and from the Internet of Things. As a result, fixed desks are no longer needed, instead replaced by flexible sitting areas for individual work, group projects, and coffee chats.

As of the present, 20% of people are always too hot or too cold in their office. Lyngsø says that in the future, there will be individualised indoor climates where each person controls their own space. Temperature control can be turned off when unnecessary–this aspect is important as environmental issues will be more prevalent. With the popularity of living walls in the present day, it can be expected that by 2030, there will be allotments in offices where people can grow their own vegetables.

Sustainability

The United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development [16], adopted in 2015, sets a plan of action to “take the bold and transformative steps which are urgently needed to shift the world onto a sustainable and resilient path.” Certain focuses are on health and wellbeing, gender equality, affordable and clean energy, decent work and economic growth, innovation and infrastructure, sustainable cities and communities, responsible consumption and production, etc. Accordingly, by 2030, new office spaces will be developed according to sustainable architectural standards.

Wellness

Work-life balance will see further development in the years leading up to the 2030s. “The office of the future does a better job of adapting to the balanced life that people want to live,” explains Yesim Kunter. “Workplaces will be focused on activity and health, beginning with onsite gyms that will eventually become exercise machines that are fully integrated with the office environment. Offices will have onsite childcare and breastfeeding facilities, allowing parents to see their children more whilst being at work. There will be more living room-like breakout spaces where people can work or meet. There will also be more individual space such as phone booths or nap pods where people can be alone to work, rest, or sleep.”

Office Attire in the 2030s

Business formal attire remains standard for the corporate office of the future. People working in different office cultures will dress appropriate to their specific workplace. Technology continues to make huge advancements and by the 2030s, visible wearable tech will be a part of everyday life and fashion [17].

Working hours per week in the 2030s

The freelance, project-based economy will continue to grow from the present day onward. By the 2030s, the traditional employer-employee structure will have evolved and work will be approached in new ways. While the amount of working hours per week may not drop significantly–to a predicted average of 36 hours per week by 2030–there will be a notable change in when, where, and how work is performed during those hours.

The KPMG Future of Work [18] report notes that the restructuring of traditional approaches to work “may lead to a shorter working week of around 30-37.5% and does not rely on the ‘same job for life’ mentality” that has been dominant in the preceding decades.

Women in the workforce in the 2030s

By the 2030s, women will have gained more equality with men, and the gender pay gap will have continued to close. However, the World Economic Forum, best known for its annual gathering in Davos, Switzerland, estimates that the gender pay gap will not close completely until the first half of the 2200s [19].

Women will be more dominant in the workforce in the 2030s. “In the new labour market where teams are decentralised and smaller, women will thrive as leaders,” Lyngsø says. “It is more likely that a woman is raised valuing empathy. While it’s difficult to feel empathetic towards a workforce of 200, it’s much easier for a workforce of 20. The progressive decentralisation of work will provide women with more opportunities to become leaders.”

Furthermore, retirement age continues to increase due to the economic implications of aging populations, increased life expectancies, and shrinking pension trust funds. In conjunction with work becoming more contract-based, the traditional understanding of retirement will also shift. People beyond the years in which they qualify for government pensions may continue to work on a part-time basis in order to remain active [20]. Because the average life expectancy of women is longer than that of men [21], it is expected that the ratio of women to men in the workforce will increase if both genders work longer into their retirement years.

  • On average, women will earn 81% of what men are paid
  • The ratio of women to men in the workforce will be 50:50 respectively [3]

Offices in the 2100s

2100-web

By the 22nd century, technology will permeate nearly every aspect of human life and the static office will no longer exist. People will work from anywhere in the world (or from outer space!) Many works of science fiction–wearable tech that controls the environment, contact lens can access the Internet in the blink of an eye–will no longer be fiction.

In the future, the office will need to be a place worth going to. Liselotte Lyngsø says that the office of the future will be a place that adds value by providing a physical location for community and human interaction. Yesim Kunter adds that the office of the future will be a place that enables rather than hosts people.

Office Culture in the 2100s

The office of the 22nd century will be a fluid space where people come together to work on projects and socialise, instead of a set location for workers to clock in and out of. Office culture will be highly social and interactive to compensate for the isolation people may work in when they’re working remotely

Kunter says that office culture will be community-focused and tribal in a sense. People will come together over shared interests similar to how meetup groups work in the present day. “More people will be self-employed,” Kunter continues. “The office will be a place for them to interact and share ideas. People won’t belong to a single team, but rather many teams, each centred around a specific goal or project.”

Office Design in the 2100s

In a world dominated by technology, where robots are able to perform the majority of repetitive tasks, human creativity and innovation will be what sets us apart from machines. Office space will be fluid, as static desks do little to inspire creativity. Kunter says that the office of the future will be focused around inspiration, with environments tailored to the current task or project.

Lyngsø says that during the industrial era, people were seen as support for machines, because machines at the time were not advanced enough to adequately perform tasks. The more machines develop, the more important the human element will become. “Machines are good at being machines,” she says, and the human workforce will be valued for its creativity. The office of the future will be an experimental place where making mistakes is encouraged–a sign that humans are continuing to experiment and create innovations in technology and society.

“Offices will become experimental places, where the focus is not just on the task but on the experience of completing the task in the right environment,” Kunter adds. “For example, a graphic designer will work from a room with sensory elements, where touch, smell, colour, play, experience are a part of the surroundings specifically designed to inspire creative work. There will be different sections in the office for completing different tasks, each tailored to inspire certain types of innovation.”

“Our focus on AI and data will be balanced by adding randomness to the office environment,” Kunter continues. “Whereas AI and data tries to forecast the future based on the past, innovation relies on elements of randomness and coincidence to create those ‘aha’ moments.”

Technology

By the 22nd century, devices such as computers, mobile phones, and clocks will have become obsolete. Instead, chips will be hidden throughout the environment, connecting numerous aspects of the physical realm to the Internet of Things. Invisible wearable tech is widely prevalent and will allow humans to command their surroundings telepathically. People will have contact lenses that allow them to go online instantly with a blink. Home offices will be accessible anywhere and anytime [22].

Sustainability

The United Nations predicts that global population is expected to reach 11.2 billion by 2100 [23]. This number is often estimated to be beyond the earth’s carrying capacity. However, David Satterthwaite, a senior fellow at the International Institute for Environment and Development in London says that “it is not the number of people on the planet that is the issue–but the number of consumers and the scale and nature of their consumption.” As such, the office of the future must be sustainable. The office of the future will utilise natural resources such as solar power, wind energy, and rainwater, working with instead of against the environment.

Wellness

The office of the future will sit at the intersection of work and life. Coworking and coliving culture will be prevalent. People will have everything they need to work at home, so offices will act as a communal extension of the home office, providing spaces to relax and interact with others, quality day care, and entertainment. As the virtual world merges with the real world, humans will crave the tangible. Lyngsø says that space to meet and interact with people will be a key part of the office of the future. Good tasting and healthy food will also be important. The office of the future will merge with restaurants and cafes to provide excellent cuisine, a trend already popular in modern day coworking spaces.

Office Attire in the 2100s

Office attire in the 22nd century will consist of practical bodysuits made with temperature-controlled materials. Invisible wearable tech is commonplace. These bodysuits will be illuminated with colours providing different readings for aspects such as temperature or health. The traditional suit is likely to remain in some form in certain industries. Kunter says that the suit is “an important, timeless symbol. Attire symbolises many social and cultural aspects and helps people understand each other and themselves.”

Working hours per week in the 2100s

By the 22nd century, much of work will be project-based tasks and the lines between work and life will be less distinct. Working hours will thus be harder to measure, but will sit around an estimated 30 hours per week [17]. Robots will be responsible for menial tasks, giving humans more time to enjoy their personal lives.

Women in the workforce in the 2100s

Kunter says that by the 22nd century, “We won’t even talk about equality, because we will already be equal. Men and women accept each other as they are. Neither gender will be dominant over the other. Softer skills will be valued and the office environment will be more welcoming and less competitive.”

There will be more women in high-ranking positions because of the decentralised workplace of the 22nd century, as women tend to be more empathetic with small teams. However, the gender pay gap will still not quite have closed. In the 22nd century, women will earn approximately 90% of what men are paid. It will be another 100 or more years before the gender pay gap completely closes [18].

In the second half of the 21st century, the percentage of women in the workforce is projected to exceed that of men for the first time. This is because there will no longer be an specific age when people retire [19]. While government pensions will still exist, more people will take on part-time or volunteer work past formal retirement age in order to remain active. Furthermore, men have a shorter life expectancy than women. With this taken into account, it can be predicted that there will be more women in the workforce than man [20].

  • On average, women will earn 90% of what men are paid
  • The ratio of women to men in the workforce will be 53:47 respectively [3]

About the Experts

Yesim Kunter

Yesim Kunter is a recognized play expert and a creative strategist understanding behavior of people to create new experiences and define new opportunities. As a consultant; develops “playful” experiences for Fortune 500 Companies, Universities, Communities by applying ‘Play Philosophy’ to products, environments, communities, culture creation as well as market research with future scoping; She has facilitated numerous successful ‘PlaytoInnovate® Workshops’ in training organizations with diverse backgrounds from kids to professionals for leveraging Creative Thinking and held talks at prestigious conferences.

Previous to her consultancy, Kunter worked for Toys R Us, Lego and Hasbro as a play futurist.

Learn more at: http://www.yesimkunter.com/about/

Liselotte Lyngsø

Liselotte Lyngsø is Founding Partner in Future Navigator. For more than 18 years, Liselotte has travelled the world as a keynote speaker and moderator. Liselotte is a valued consultant for several global organizations and companies. She is has recently been appointed to the Lifeboat Foundation – Safeguarding Humanity as a futurist advisor. Also, she is in the prestigious group of international thought leaders who will select the topics and inform the production of the 2018 NMC Technology Outlook.

Previously, Lyngsø was Managing Director of Fahrenheit 212, an ideas company owned by Saatchi & Saatchi. Before that, she worked at IKEA’s scenario planning division, was Director of Research at the Copenhagen Institute for Futures Studies (CIFS), and worked at European Commission’s Forward Studies Unit.

Learn more at: https://futurenavigator.com/portfolio-item/liselotte-lyngso/

Full Infographic

office space timeline infographic 1950s to 2100s.

find-new-office-now

References

[1] http://eh.net/encyclopedia/hours-of-work-in-u-s-history/
[2] https://www.infoplease.com/womens-earnings-percentage-mens-1951-2013
[3] http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2017/01/31/women-may-never-make-up-half-of-the-u-s-workforce/
[4] https://www.hermanmiller.com/designers/propst/
[5] http://www.pbs.org/wnet/need-to-know/health/a-brief-history-of-the-birth-control-pill/480/
[6] https://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/history/35th/thelaw/epa.html
[7] http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1970/41/enacted
[8] http://time.com/4008060/women-strike-equality-1970/
[9] https://www.criterionindustries.com.au/blog/office-design-trends-throughout-the-decades.html/
[10] http://time.com/4286575/sexual-harassment-before-anita-hill/
[11] https://thenextweb.com/insider/2011/08/06/20-years-ago-today-the-world-wide-web-opened-to-the-public/
[12] https://www.virgin.com/entrepreneur/how-tech-start-ups-have-redefined-idea-company-culture
[13] https://www.dezeen.com/tag/apple-campus-2/
[14] https://www.bloomberg.com/company/announcements/bloomberg-most-sustainable-office-building/
[15] http://www.kpcb.com/internet-trends
[16] https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300
[17] https://www.wareable.com/wearable-tech/best-wearable-tech-2018-506
[18] https://assets.kpmg.com/content/dam/kpmg/fr/pdf/2017/05/fr-Future-Of-Work-report.pdf
[19] https://www.theguardian.com/society/2017/nov/01/gender-pay-gap-217-years-to-close-world-economic-forum
[20] http://time.com/4217033/what-will-the-retirement-age-be-in-2050/
[21] https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/birthsdeathsandmarriages/lifeexpectancies/bulletins/nationallifetablesunitedkingdom/2014to2016
[22] https://nypost.com/2011/03/20/the-world-in-2100/
[23] https://esa.un.org/unpd/wpp/Publications/Files/Key_Findings_WPP_2015.pdf
[24] https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/?menu=1300

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